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The potential of new biological materials

Date:2017-01-18 14:54

Biological new materials in medicine has been widely used in artificial joints, dental fillers and artificial heart valves and so on.

Russian scientists through years of research, from the human body or animal bones extracted from the bone collagen (constitute the main protein of connective tissue) and isolated from the connective tissue of the complex glucosamine combined to obtain a unique function of the new biological composite The This biocomposite helps to restore the damaged human organ function, such as healing of the wound, for the treatment of dentistry, the treatment of sarcoma and the repair of the joints, and is widely used in medicine.

Chinese medicine has been recorded, crab shell can be "attack, scattered wind, consumer product, line silt", although one of the earliest chitin ingredients by the French scientists found and named "chitin", but because chitin insoluble in water , Has long been regarded as waste. Shanghai Second Military Medical University Affiliated Long March Hospital research team research and development nearly 20 years, developed a water-soluble, biosafety medical chitosan. Medical chitosan is a natural polymer compounds, with the promotion of epithelial cell growth, broad-spectrum antibacterial and other biological characteristics. In the hemostatic function, the cationic chitosan is easy to agglutinate with anion-containing erythrocytes. At present, the hemostatic bandage developed according to this mechanism has been applied in the army. In the eye function, chitosan was found to maintain the corneal epithelial cell viscoelasticity and moisturizing, long-term use of the computer caused by dry eye and other effective. Chitosan and collagen, but also in tissue engineering medical care as a scaffold material, such as nano-nerve tube, not only flexural compression, but also in vivo degradation and absorption. Medical chitosan project has been successfully declared and won the 2008 Shanghai Technology Invention Award first prize.
       
Bio-new materials are not only widely used in medicine, but scientists also look to the new biotechnology used in all walks of life. Thus, building materials made of mushrooms, electronic products made of corn shells, energy-saving light bulbs made of DNA, chips made of protein, batteries made of viruses, adhesives made of marine organisms And so have debut.
       
Mushrooms are delicious food on the table, who will think of it and the building materials linked to it. Two young American inventors, Bell and McNittal, have developed an environmentally friendly organic material for the construction industry with mushrooms. The inventors injected water, ore particles, starch and hydrogen peroxide into a 1 7.78 cm (7 inch) square mold, and then injected into active mushroom spores, where the effect of hydrogen peroxide was to prevent the growth of other ingredients in the material The The above materials are placed in a dark environment, the cells began to absorb the starch as a nutrient, germination of thousands of root-like cell string. After one to two weeks, it grew into a 2.54 cm (1 inch) thick organic board. Scientists do it dry to avoid fungi, and the final finished product is like a huge wooden biscuit. In the case of heat resistance, the heat-resistant coefficient of a 2.54 cm (1 inch) perlite-mushroom composite sample is 0.2 higher than the heat resistance coefficient (2.7) for commercial glass fibers. The test results show that the patent is not only highly competitive in the market, but also conducive to environmental protection and sustainable development.
       
Samsung W51 0 is the first to corn starch as raw material made of green phone. In the process of manufacturing this phone to eliminate the use of brominated flame retardants (BFR) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and other environmentally harmful materials, the raw materials used corn and other plants in the polylactic acid as the main component, with water-soluble, And does not contain heavy metals such as lead, mercury and cadmium. The phone is discarded by microbial and oxidative slow decomposition into carbon dioxide, water and inorganic, will not cause pollution to the environment.
       
Massachusetts Institute of Technology scholars are using the virus to make batteries. They use the virus harmless to the human body, can help metal elements and some other chemicals together and produce current, its efficacy is not lower than today's widely used batteries, but the volume is 1/4 of ordinary batteries. And the United States of America Cincinnati University experts from the salmon roe in the extraction of genetic material to create energy-saving light bulbs, its life than the current energy-saving lamps 3 to 5 times longer.
       
A large amount of liquid in the body of a jellyfish can be refined into a polymer, and the protein and fat in the sea cucumber can be refined into a gel. The mussel can firmly bind the feet to the rocks and sand to the glue. In the absorption of 30 times the volume of their own water can still remain stiff, and dry. When the polymer is used in daily life, when the gel controlled by weak current is used to drive the motor, pump and valve, when the adhesive protects the metal sheet from erosion, the various properties of the creature let us see the magical nature The
       
Using protein molecules as components can be made into bio-chip, inspired many scientists inspiration and enthusiasm. A computer chip made with protein can hold hundreds of millions of circuits in an area of ​​1 square millimeter, with storage capacity of up to one billion times that of a typical computer. The integrated circuit of protein, the size of the wafer is only one hundred thousandth of the integrated circuit, and the operation faster. In addition, the bio-chip low energy consumption, and has a self-repair function, it can be combined with the human brain, listen to the human brain command, from the human body to absorb nutrients.
       
Sword is an unusual insect, its shell can be with the outside air humidity from green to black. Scientists predict that the structure of the shells presented by the angle will become an important feature of the future "smart material". According to this feature can be developed as a new type of humidity detector material, can be used in food processing plants to monitor the humidity index and so on.
       
Nature has too many secrets need us to use a keen eye, a scientific attitude to constantly explore.

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